Egypt is a fabulous land of pyramids, mummies, temples, and pharaohs. The sights of Egypt beckon you into the depths of centuries, forcing you to plunge into the history of antiquity and get into the spirit of those times. Modernity and antiquity coexist here with each other in an amazing way, giving this land a fascinatingly magical look. The country is distinguished by its identity, loyalty to tradition and characteristic oriental flavor. Dry and hot climate allows you to come here to rest in any season, even in the winter months, the water temperature in the sea is above 20 degrees. Visitors to Egypt for the first time begs the question - what to see in Egypt in the first place? Let’s consider a list of major attractions that deserve your attention and, undoubtedly, will not leave you indifferent.
There are not only informative excursions in Egypt on the places of ancient civilizations, but also exciting trips through the desert, visits to water parks and much more. It is not possible to cover everything at once in one visit, but the information we have gathered will give you a chance to quickly determine where you would most like to go.
In the Libyan desert, on the Giza Plateau, is the most important “place of power” on the continent and arguably one of the most beautiful places on our planet. It is the Great Pyramids of Giza, which is a whole cemetery city with temples, tombs, roads. The ancient necropolis includes the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the pyramid of Cheops, one of the 7 wonders of the world), the slightly smaller Pyramid of Khafra and the much more modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure, as well as several smaller satellite pyramids.
In fact, this complex is a cemetery for real aristocrats, where pharaohs were buried, as well as all their close associates - wives, servants, close relatives and all those who had noble origins and wished to go to the next world after their lord.
In general, the whole complex, besides the pyramids, consists of:
The rocky plateau on which the pyramids were erected and provided the material for their construction - blocks of limestone were extracted from a quarry located nearby.
Official site: http://www.sca-egypt.org
In the 16th century B.C., the Valley of the Kings was created for the purpose of burying the rulers of Egypt, a place in a rocky ravine where a number of tombs were organized. At one time this place was secret and was strictly guarded by overseers who protected it from raids and robbery.
The tradition of burial of the pharaohs was established by one of them - Thutmose I, who feared for the looting of his own tomb, ordered to organize it in inaccessible, impassable place. And so appeared the valley of Thebes - the most important landmark of Egypt, which has preserved its appearance to this day.
The place for the Great Magical Necropolis was not chosen by chance:
At present more than 60 pharaohs, as well as the wives and children of the rulers, are buried in the Valley. A whole system of intricate tunnels and wells is formed within the Valley, and the walls are covered with frescoes narrating the lives of the buried persons.
If during your travels you happen to be in the ancient city of history and magic - Luxor, then the question of what to visit in Egypt can be considered solved. Of course, this majestic Luxor temple is a monumental religious structure, built in the 14th century BC. The temple impresses by the perfection and harmony of forms, especially when you realize the degree of antiquity of this historical monument. One of the largest temples in Egypt has a total length of about 260 meters, and the massive trapezoidal towers - pylons, decorating the entrance, reaching 20 meters in height and 70 meters in length.
The temple was built by order of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled at the time, who dedicated it to the sun god Amon-Ra, his wife Mut and their son Khonsa. In ancient times at the entrance to the temple stood 6 huge statues of Pharaoh Ramses II, but only two of them have survived. Here you can admire the huge 25-meter obelisk, painted with frescoes. Originally, there were two, but one of them was donated to France by order of ruler Mohamed Ali in 1819.
For many centuries this temple stood covered with sand, and it was not until the middle of the 19th century that excavations began. It is noteworthy that the excavations continue to the present day and archaeologists continue to find new details of the temple complex.
In the south of the Sinai Peninsula lies Egypt’s favorite tourist attraction, the resort city of Sharm el-Sheikh, which has a reputation as Egypt’s most prestigious seaside resort. The love of visitors to the country to this city is justified - there is a special charm in it, and local landscapes markedly contrasting against the background of the sands, numerous ruins, rocks and canyons. Numerous palm trees, bright green lawns, a variety of exotic flowers, emerald sea with a rich and colorful underwater world, wide beaches with cleanest and soft sand - all this turns the resort area of the town of Sharm el-Sheikh, stretching for 35 kilometers, in a real oasis in the desert sands.
Especially the resort is attractive for lovers of scuba diving. This is due to the fact that this is the location of the national park of Ras Muhammad, known throughout the world for its underwater wealth - the number of corals and colorful fauna is virtually unparalleled in the world. Dozens of diving centers here offer all the necessary equipment for divers, local stores are literally stocked with professional diving equipment.
In addition to diving, there are plenty of opportunities for entertainment: jacuzzis, tennis courts, swimming pools, golf clubs, gyms, parachutes, jet skis, dolphinarium and much more.
Once in the mysterious and ancient land of the pharaohs, every traveler can see for himself or herself - there is much to see in Egypt, besides studying numerous excavations and ancient ruins. One striking example of this is the royal palace and park complex of Montaza, located in eastern Alexandria, on the shore of a small bay. Against the background of most sights in Egypt, the palace of Montaza stands out for the beauty of natural landscapes, the coziness of green alleys and intricate pavilions. Here, among the greenery of centuries-old trees, flower beds, ponds, Greek sculptures, you can wander for hours, breathing in the scents of vegetation and enjoying the magnificent panorama.
The palace itself was built not long ago - at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, as a summer residence of the Egyptian kings. On the vast territory of the park in 1892 the first palace built in the Austrian style was Salamlik, which served as a hunting lodge for the last ruler of the Mohammed Ali Dynasty - Khedive Abbas II. The main palace and royal gardens appeared on this site somewhat later, in 1932. In the external design of the palace intertwined elements of Florentine and Turkish architecture, and around the palace stretches a luxurious park, planted with palms, pines and other trees of conifers, equipped with alleys for strolls and pavilions for rest.
One of the largest structures of ancient Egypt that have survived to this day, as well as the largest religious complex in the world, is the Karnak Temple, located on the east bank of the Nile, 2 kilometers from Luxor. Today, the temple of Karnak is one of the main historical monuments and the second most visited landmark in Egypt, after the famous pyramids of Giza.
The temple of Karnak is a huge temple complex measuring 1.5 kilometers by 0.7 kilometers, which includes 33 temples and halls, all of which resemble a kind of city, rather than a building. The whole complex has been subject to a series of changes and additions over the past 2 millennia, because each of the pharaohs wanted in his own way to complement and transform this splendor, to make a contribution and leave a certain memory of the period of his reign.
The entire temple complex consists of several parts:
There is one interesting place in Egypt that holds a history dating back thousands of years. The importance of this place has recently faded somewhat in comparison to the popular attractions of Egypt - such as the pyramids of Giza or the resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. Mount Sinai, located on the Sinai Peninsula, is probably the first thing to visit in Egypt for those who are interested in local shrines.
Mount Sinai, also known as Mount Moses is a place with which a biblical story is connected. It is believed that it was here that the prophet Moses received the Ten Commandments from the Lord and passed them on to his people. Since this story does not only exist in Christianity, these commandments are also held by the Jewish and Islamic religions.
So here at the top of the mountain, at an altitude of 2,285 meters, there is a temple dedicated to each of these religions. There is a chapel dedicated to the Trinity and a similarly sized mosque, and the Jewish trail leads to a cave that is said to have sheltered Moses for forty days while he was communing with God.
The pilgrimage to the top of Mount Moses (Sinai) has been going on for thousands of years - it was the pilgrimage of the Byzantine empress Helen herself. According to the legend, on her order the chapel of Neopalimaya Kupina was put.
Among the most famous monuments of ancient Egyptian culture is another historical landmark in Egypt - the cave temple of Ramses II in Nubia. This temple was built around 1260s BC, respecting the then existing traditions of design of tombs. The temple at Abu Simbel includes two structures - the Big Temple and Small Temple.
The large temple was dedicated to Pharaoh Ramses II who ruled at the time, as well as to the gods Amon-Ra, Ptah, and Khoraht. The entrance to the temple is oriented to the east, and one interesting fact is that twice a year, on March 21 and September 21, at about 6 am, a ray of sunrise penetrates into all rooms of the temple and lights up the figure of Ramses II and Amon-Ra, and then briefly highlights the face of Pharaoh so that he seems to “smile”. Then the beam advances and illuminates the figure of Khorahte for some time, but Ptah always remains hidden in the shadows, because he is the lord of the underworld, and the sunlight is not necessary for him.
The Lesser Temple was dedicated to Hathor, the goddess of heaven. The decorations here are much simpler, and the temple itself consists of a sanctuary and a columned hall. There are three niches in the sanctuary, one of which contains a figure of a cow, representing the image of the goddess.
At the foot of Mount Sinai sits another of Egypt’s oldest landmarks, one of the world’s oldest active temple complexes - the Monastery of St. Catherine. The temple, built about 1.5 thousand years ago (527-565 AD), not once in the history of its existence has not been destroyed, captured, damaged, so nothing prevented it to preserve its appearance to this day.
The name of St. Catherine was given to the monastery not immediately, but only in the 11th century, in honor of the Great Martyr Catherine. From a young age, this maiden believed in Christ, converted many people to Christianity, for which she endured a lot of troubles and hardships in her life. More than once she was forced to return to the worship of pagan gods, but the young virgin was adamant. For this, the Emperor Maximinus, who ruled at the time, ordered her to be executed by beheading. According to tradition, Catherine’s body after death was carried by angels to the top of Mount Sinai, and the monks found the remains of the great martyr, identifying her by the ring given to her by Jesus Christ himself.
The monastery includes a large temple - the Basilica of Transfiguration, as well as 12 small chapels, there is a garden, a refectory and a huge library of manuscripts, whose value is second only to the Vatican library.
Every Orthodox pilgrim who comes to this monastery, receives a silver ring, which shows the heart with the monogram “K” - so the Great Martyr Catherine, who took a martyr’s death, as if giving each coming here a piece of his heart.
Official website: http://www.sinaimonastery.com
The technological progress inherent in our time could not radically change preferences, and true lovers of literature are not outnumbered among us, who have something to see in Egypt, besides popular resorts, majestic castles or ancient ruins. This, of course, is the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, also called the New Library of Alexandria.
The progenitor of the new library was the Ancient Library of Alexandria, founded in the 3rd century B.C. How it was destroyed, history is silent; we can only speculate that it was either a fire or a series of events, as a result of which the cultural place was plundered and destroyed to the ground.
The idea of erecting the New Library of Alexandria first emerged in the 1970s among professors at Alexandria University. It was not until 1992 that preparatory work for the construction of the library building began, and in 1995 the actual construction process began, which was completed in 2001. In 2002 the library solemnly opened its doors in the presence of leaders of many countries.
The library building has the unusual shape of a cylinder of glass and aluminum with a beveled dome. The library can hold about 8 million books and its collections are brought together from every corner of the world. The main reading room has a huge area - about 70,000 square meters on 11 levels, going cascading. In addition to the reading room itself the library complex includes:
Official website: http://www.bibalex.org
The key to a successful trip to the land of the pharaohs will be professional guides in Egypt and a list of places to visit in advance. Another important point - the weather conditions (or rather the timing of the trip), because in this country it is very hot, and part of the attractions are in the open space.
On the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, near Alexandria, a major commercial, industrial and financial center of the country, there is another important landmark in Egypt, the Kait Bay Fortress. It has been determined that the fortress was erected in 1477 directly on the ruins of the Alexandria Lighthouse. As you know, the Alexandria Lighthouse is recognized as one of the 7 wonders of the world. A major earthquake in 1100 destroyed the structure, but the lighthouse was not destined to completely disappear from the face of the earth, and its foundations were “immortalized” in their own way as the foundation of the fortress.
The fortress of Kite Bay played the role of a strategically important point in the Mediterranean. It suffered crushing blows at different times as a result of enemy raids, but time after time it was rebuilt, and its military might was reborn again.
So, for 5 centuries the fortress passed into the possession of the Ottoman Empire. Later, the famous outpost could not resist the attacks of the French army led by Napoleon. At the beginning of the 19th century, Muhammad Ali put a lot of effort into the restoration of the fortress and the elimination of the devastation. Not a century later, the fortress suffered a severe defeat under attack by British troops.
It was not until 1952 that Kait Bay came under the auspices of the Maritime Museum of Egypt, and in the last years of the 20th century extensive reconstruction work was carried out, and the fortress has acquired almost its original appearance, which it retains to this day.
One of the most extraordinary places on the planet is the Colored Canyon near the town of Nuweiba in Egypt. Once here, a man clearly feels all the power of nature and the power of the elements. About 5 million years it took to form this miracle of nature: originally there was a powerful earthquake, which split the rock and created a crack deep in it 5 kilometers. Over millions of years, the crack has been washed away by rain, deepened by strong winds, and its lines have become more and more gradual.
The rocks consist of an unusual rock, colored sandstone. It was the combination of different colors in the rock that gave the canyon its name. Despite the heat, it is always cool at the bottom of the canyon. Walking along the narrow gorge, from 30 cm to 1 meter wide, you can see more closely its walls formed by stony soil with flecks of coral - proof that this part of the Sinai Peninsula was once under water.
The entire canyon consists of many labyrinths, and its total length is about 5 kilometers. The route starts at the top and then a narrow winding path gradually takes you down to the bottom of the gorge, the passage becomes narrower and narrower, and the steep cliffs exhibit bizarre patterns created by nature itself. At the exit of the canyon travelers expect jeeps and numerous souvenir shops.
Noisy bazaars with a variety of goods can be found in every corner of the world, but few become iconic for locals and visiting tourists alike. For those who want to immerse themselves in the atmosphere of a lively market and experience the local color, there is definitely something to see in Egypt.
World famous Cairo Khan el-Khalili market attracts visitors from all over the world with its variety, striking the imagination of the most sophisticated visitor. Here you find everything to buy and take with you a piece of this country embodying the local color: all kinds of spices, jewelry, scarves, perfumes, lamps and many other things that can leave a memory of a trip to Egypt for years to come. Walking through the narrow streets of the market one feels the atmosphere of the Middle Ages, which not only gives you a joy of shopping, but also gives you a glimpse into the past.
Countless stores, shops full of merchandise, noisy vendors and visitors, all this will draw you into a single cycle of events and impressions. Tired of the bustle of the market, you can stop by any local coffee shop or restaurant, drink a cup of fragrant coffee or explore the variety of local cuisine.
Between the rich coral thickets of the Red Sea, on the southernmost coast of the Sinai Peninsula, sits Egypt’s most famous national park, which has become the world’s most popular spot for scuba diving. Real divers have something to see in Egypt - this is Ras Mohammed, the territory of which was declared a protected area in 1989. The underwater world of the coastal zone of the reserve is so rich that this picturesque place at one time conquered the famous traveler - Jacques-Yves Cousteau. The world of corals in the reserve Ras Mohammed is incredibly rich and varied: it can be a whole mountain of coral reefs under water, and the endless cliffs, leading to unknown sea depths, and a flat endless plateau.
The reefs rising from the depths of the sea here can be billions of years old! Emerald waters of the Red Sea on this coast are a real abundance of different forms of life. Coral alone there are about 220 species. Also surprised by the variety and local fauna:
Among Egypt’s new attractions worthy of your attention is Al-Azhar Park in Cairo. The construction and equipping of the grandiose park with a total area of 30 hectares started in 1997 and was carried out for about a decade.
The work of equipping the park began with the clearing of the areas between the Mameluk Tomb and the Salah ad-Din city wall. The hilly, abandoned and turned into a dumping ground was leveled and cleared of debris, revealing many hidden parts of the city wall - towers, galleries, gates and more. All of this was to be restored, and the old city backyards were eventually turned into a beautiful park.
The terrain was leveled, water systems were laid underground, and a pumping station was installed to provide water and run the park fountains. Throughout the park were planted 655 thousand seedlings of various plants, paved roads, equipped large areas for walking and recreation. More complex objects have been equipped - such as restaurants and cafes on sites with wonderful panoramas of the park.
Today, Al-Azhar Park Complex is a huge space immersed in the greenery of planted trees, bushes, flowers, with a small man-made lake, water channels, paths and a palm yard in the center. Al-Azhar Park was officially opened in May 2005.
Official website: http://www.azharpark.com/
Tourist Egypt is simply impossible to imagine the greatest monuments of antiquity - the grand Egyptian pyramids. The largest of the pyramids located on the Giza plateau is the Cheops pyramid. Supposedly the weight of the construction is about 4 million tons, and the height is about 140 meters - impressive figures, given that the structure was built by people 4.5 thousand years ago. The means and purpose by which the monuments were erected are still not known. There are only several versions, according to one of which the pyramids were used as granaries during the great famine - these events have a confirmation in the sacred Scripture. According to another legend, the pyramid was used to bury the body of a pharaoh whose soul passed here to the higher world. The masonry of the structure is impressive - the density of the adjoining stones is so great that the finest razor blade would not pass between them. Inside the pyramid there are passages and chambers, mysterious rooms and vents.
On the same Giza plateau, not far from Chephren Pyramid, is another impressive ancient monument - the mysterious Great Sphinx, which is considered to be the oldest monumental sculpture in the world. The mystery of its origin and purpose of its erection remain a mystery. The monument is 73 meters long and about 20 meters high and is carved directly out of the rock and represents a lion with a human head. I must say, the image of the sphinx is traditional for Egyptian culture - he was worshiped as a royal animal associated with the sun god - Ra. For many centuries the mysterious sculpture was under a thick layer of sand - attempts to excavate it have been made since the 14th century BC, but the first excavations were unsuccessful. The restoration of the sculpture revealed interesting facts - for example, it turned out that the sphinx was built before the well-known pyramids, and that under the left paw of the lion deepens a tunnel leading to the Chephren pyramid.
In the heart of the capital city of Cairo sits the largest repository of artifacts reflecting Egypt’s ancient history-the Cairo Egyptian Museum. The grandiose collection of 136 thousand artifacts is housed in more than a hundred halls, and another 40,000 exhibits lurk in the basements, where many artifacts have already absorbed the soft ground. The collection of the museum is so large that according to general estimates, to study all the exhibits would take more than a year! All items in the museum are placed chronologically and thematically, and the age of the oldest items is five thousand years. Within the walls of the complex, for example, you can see 11 mummies of pharaohs, sarcophagi, art objects, everyday life and other things that reflect the life of ancient Egyptians. Special attention should be given to the collection dedicated to the objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun - this is a death mask, as well as furniture, dishes, jewelry and even the king’s chariot.
If the Mohammed Ali Mosque is a famous Muslim symbol of Cairo, the Church of the Holy Virgin Mary is the main symbol of all Egyptians who preach Christianity and are called Copts. The Church of the Virgin Mary was built around the 3rd century B.C. and has kept its current appearance since the 7th-9th centuries A.D. The church is located in the Coptic quarter where a number of other Christian churches are located in addition to the shrine. The main attraction within the walls of the temple is the carved wooden iconostasis made of Lebanese cedar from the 12th and 13th centuries. Perhaps one of the most memorable moments in the history of the church was a three-year period in the 20th century when a number of miraculous phenomena occurred in the neighborhood – for example, a luminous image of the Virgin Mary appeared in the sky above the roof several times, and everything inside the church periodically lit up with mysterious light and shining birds like doves flew in and circled.
Official website: http://www.coptic-cairo
Perhaps of utmost importance in the study of Egypt are the historical and cultural sites of Egypt. Sharm el-Sheikh is a city where a museum dedicated to the life of an Egyptian pharaoh was recently opened in 2014. Despite his short 18-year life, Tutankhamun today is one of the most famous rulers, but he became famous not for his outstanding reign, but for the fact that his tomb was the only one that has survived unlooted to this day. That is why the Tutankhamun Museum exhibition is based on the numerous objects from his tomb, which number more than a thousand and a half in total, but only about a hundred are exhibited here. It is worth noting that the exhibits on display are only copies of these items, and all one and a half thousand originals are stored elsewhere - in the National Museum in Cairo.
Official website: http://www.genenacity
In the middle of a crowded square in Alexandria, the ornate 73-meter minaret of the Abu el-Abbas Mosque with its 4 symmetrically arranged domes rises into the air. The whole facade of the building is covered with lace ligature of Arabic patterns - arabesques, which can be viewed for hours. This large beautiful mosque was built in the 14th century over the tomb of Prophet, after whom it was named. This holy prophet is one of the most revered saints in the country, he is considered the patron saint of sailors and fishermen. There are two main entrances to the mosque: the northern entrance leads from the square and the street adjacent to the royal palace, the eastern door leads to another part of the square. The main inner hall of the mosque has the shape of an octagon with each side being 22 meters long. The inside of the walls and ceiling are finished with fanciful mosaics, and the ceilings are decorated with traditional Arabic paintings.
The Colossi of Memnon are an integral part of the architectural heritage of ancient Egypt. These giant statues were once erected in honor of one of the Egyptian pharaohs, Amenhotep III, and it is believed that he is the one embodied in these stone statues. Once the sculptures were part of the complex - there was a temple in the name of the pharaoh, but over time it collapsed, and 20-meter “guards”, built from blocks of sandstone, have survived. The reason for the destruction of the temple allegedly caused by the Nile River floods, which over time “washed” it off the face of the earth. The Colossi were once called “singing” - they did indeed produce a peculiar sound: when heated, the air seeped through a certain hole in the northern Colossus, creating a kind of melody. However, one of the earthquakes significantly destroyed the northern statue, which even after restoration by the Romans never began to “sing”.
If the famous Luxor temple, of which only fragments remain today, witnessed the economic and political flowering of the ancient Egyptian civilization during the New Kingdom period, the temple of Isis on the island of Philae is a living witness to the Ptolemaic era. It was once the center of the cult of the goddess representing the Egyptian ideal of womanhood and motherhood, but as a result of the construction of the Aswan Dam the original structures were completely hidden in the water. An operation was carried out to remove all the Philae monuments from the water, after which they were moved to a nearby island and rebuilt. The Temple of Isis was the first building on the island - it began under construction in the 4th century BC, was completed during the Ptolemaic dynasty and was only completed under Emperor Caracalla. Today the temple complex, in addition to the temple of Isis, includes the temple of Nektaneb I, the temple of the goddess Hathor, the “kiosk” of Trajan.
The Suez Canal is one of the most important maritime arteries on the planet, allowing ships to sail both ways without rounding Africa. In the past, cargo was transported by unloading ships, by overland transport between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Today, the canal waters are the shortest route between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. For this purpose, the canal was opened in the 19th century, although it is worth noting that the idea of creating such an artery first emerged in antiquity - in the 7th century BC, but the project never materialized, and a century later the Persian conquerors of Egypt still began construction, but never completed it. And only in the 19th century the great project, whose author was a French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, began. Today between 60 and 80 ships pass through the canal every day, and the income from its operation is one of the main items of profit of the Egyptian budget.
The great engineering invention of the 20th century in Egypt is the Aswan Dam, which, incidentally, was designed by Soviet engineers. The creation of the dam allowed the country to solve the problem of floods, establish control over floods of the Nile River and switch to year-round irrigation of the land. But at the same time we should not forget that the dam also brought misfortunes associated with the destruction of the homes of local Egyptians and ancient monuments located in the path of water. The dam is a huge dam with a stone embankment with cement and clay at its core. A four-lane highway runs along the top of the dam and six tunnels have been created on the right bank of the Nile to bring water to the hydroelectric plant. As a result of the construction of the dam a huge artificial reservoir was formed - Lake Nasser, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, which today is actively used for land irrigation.
When mentioning Egypt’s natural attractions, the report must necessarily include one of its recognizable symbols-the country’s most important waterway, the Nile River. Indeed, the fate of Egypt has always been closely linked with the Nile - the sacred river was the source of life for the ancient civilization, starting from the Stone Age. And the very birth of ancient Egypt occurred thanks to this great river. And to this day in the Nile valley are all settlements, where almost the entire population lives, because the Nile is the main source of fresh water. Among other things, along the Nile runs the main tourist route - because the vast majority of ancient monuments are concentrated here. Cruises are constantly organized on the waters of the river: a comfortable boat trip is an ideal way to get acquainted with the country, its values and culture.
The Hurghada Grand Aquarium is unique in its kind as it is the first large aquarium in the world where the Red Sea flora and fauna are gathered in such numbers and diversity. This facility opened just recently - at the beginning of 2015, and occupied an area of 40 thousand square meters, and in the future it is planned to open an area of another 100 thousand square meters. The main objective of the construction of the Hurghada Grand was to preserve the endangered species of the Red Sea. There are 24 thematic exhibitions in the halls of the Aquarium, corresponding to different types of environment. For example, one section features sharks and rays, with smaller fish scurrying between them, as well as an artificially cultured coral reef. Another section displays the remains of ancient whales. There is also a recreated tropical forest area, a mini-zoo, a whale valley, an exhibition about the life and livelihood of the Bedouin, and much more.
Official website: https://hurghadaaquarium
What are some of the interesting creations of nature in Egypt? The first thing that deserves attention is an extraordinary natural formation near the Sinai coast. The so-called Blue Hole - a complex of vertical underwater caves, which from the surface of the water look like a bottomless dark spot in the emerald sea, as if a mysterious gateway to another dimension. At a depth of about 56 meters begins a tunnel - the so-called “Arch” of overhanging corals, and a special professionalism among divers is considered the passage of this path without a scuba diver. The fate of many divers who dared to pass the path without equipment, was unfortunate and brought this place negative fame. However, do not be afraid to dive into the waters of the Blue Hole with equipment and to a depth of no more than 30 meters - it is enough to get acquainted with the beautiful coral world of the Red Sea.
As is already known, the life of Egypt, since antiquity, has been inextricably linked with the great river Nile. Every year the Nile flooded, providing irrigation of the land, but the fluctuations of the water level were not always the same - in some years there were droughts, which brought mass starvation, in others - floods with disastrous consequences. To predict the behavior of the river, the Egyptians five thousand years ago invented a peculiar instrument to measure the water level - the so-called Nilomer. One of such structures, preserved to this day, is located in Cairo, on the island of Rhoda. It is an eight-cornered marble column in a deep square well. In order to know the water level, one had to go down a ladder and examine the column. Water entered the well through three pipes installed at different depths. The notches on the column were used to determine whether the year would be dry or auspicious, or to wait for floods.
Official site: http://www.waterhistory
To the east of the Sahara Desert stretches an unusual area of about 300 square kilometers, the White Desert, which Egypt granted national park status in 2002. The snow-white sands of the desert have a pearly sheen, and in some places there are bizarre figures, as if in a fantasy movie. Millions of years ago the White Desert was an ocean floor, where the remains of microorganisms were deposited. Over time, the sea dried up and the wind bare the massive white layer. Today at the entrance to the park you can see Crystal Mountain, where calcite crystals lie everywhere, shimmering in the sun. The next place is a small oasis with a spring, and further along the route visitors have an incredible view of the White Desert. Especially attractive against the background of the sands are huge limestone figures, shaped like mushrooms. The park ends with another oasis with a small Bedouin village.